first and last lines of a file

Define it as an alias: Make it available as a more general function: column -t is usefull when you work frequently with table-like text files.

install latest Cufflinks

See here.

install latest TopHat

See here.

install a program (compiled binaries/ executables) accessible for all users

  1. Move the installation directory, eg. myapp, to /opt.
    $ sudo mv myapp /opt/
    
  2. Link the executable(s) into /usr/local/bin. This directory is per default in the $PATH environment variable and can therefore be executed by any user simply by typing mybinary instead of /usr/local/bin/mybinary.
    $ sudo ln -s /opt/myapp/bin/mybinary /usr/local/bin/
    
    If you have multiple executables to link, you can use wildcards as well:
    $ sudo ln -s /opt/myapp/bin/*.sh /usr/local/bin/
    
    For multiple executables that cannot be catched by any wildcard, you can use find to find all files in the directory that are executable and create a link:
    $ sudo find /opt/myapp -maxdepth 1 -type f -executable -exec ln -s {} /usr/local/bin/ \;
    
  3. Logout and login again to make changes to $PATH take effect.